# Understanding natural disaster, and structural forces. in building construction

construction such as building a house **รับสร้างบ้าน** There should be an understanding of wind, earthquake, and structural forces. in the construction of buildings to prevent damage that may affect the building The details are as follows.

Wind power

- Wind force is caused by the condition of air masses affecting the building. The impact force of the wind is considered a horizontal force.
- Structures, components or exterior decoration materials of the building must be designed to resist the wind forces that will cause the building to slide, lift or flip.
- Wind forces will act on the outer wall and roof surfaces with a slope angle of more than 30º that is positive, i.e., it is a pressure characteristic on the side of the wind and will result in a negative force (negative) at all roofs, whether The roof is on the windward side or behind the wind.
- There is an observation that If the roof has a slope of less than 30º, the wind force acting on the roof will induce a total tensile strength on the roof. whether the roof is on the windward side or behind the wind
- Wind load used in design calculations. Wind loads are taken from the ordinance required wind loads for buildings of varying heights, which are measured in wind pressure with a maximum average speed at a height of 33′ (10 m) from an area, which will increase. However, the design of building structures
**บริษัทรับสร้างบ้าน**due to wind loads in areas prone to storm surges should take into account additional gale force winds. - In the event that hazardous or toxic substances must be kept in the building. should bring the cost of wind storm and earthquake force (In the event that there is a possibility) that the highest is designed for safety
- Structural flapping or structural cables can be caused by up-and-down gale force winds between two supports.
- tall buildings or there is a delay or unusual structures It has a complex structure and is lightweight. or flexible structure often swing Such buildings should have simulated wind tunnel testing to prove the building’s shake-resistance and its ability to withstand wind loads in the presence of wind from different directions. to act in different ways

Earthquake force

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The earthquake force is The vibrations occur in a continuous sequence both longitudinally and transversely. which arises from the collision of the earth’s crust, moving along the rift The tremors will spread along the earth’s crust. expanding in the form of waves and gradually fades at a Logarithm rate as the distance from the source while the movement is in three dimensions But the horizontal movement of the movement is the most effective and important factor that we should consider. For the design of horizontal load-bearing structural parts while the vertical load-bearing structure parts are designed to withstand the load that may already be increased by earthquakes.

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- The upper part of the structure creates inertia. As a building structure moves horizontally along the motion during an earthquake, according to Newton’s 2nd law of inertia, this inertia force is equal to the product of the building’s weight and its acceleration.
- Such horizontal lateral forces and inertia forces at the base of the building can be compared to static forces. To calculate, design, prevent the effects of earthquakes on standard structures of buildings with a height of not more than 240′ (73 m), or special shaped structures with a height of not more than 5 floors, or general structures located in less seismic areas.
- The shear force at the base of the structure is Force acting horizontally when an earthquake occurs. which shall be considered as the value used to calculate the base design of the structure It is obtained by multiplying the total constant weight of the building by the seismic coefficient. The strength of the earthquake movement The characteristics of the soil layer under the foundation Characteristics of building use (building type), the strength of the structural parts that can cause the force transfer between the building’s components, and the quake value (the length and time of the quake from the starting point to the point of re-establishment). ) of the building structure
- The shear forces at the base of the building spread up through the floors. of the building in proportion to the height that is further from the base of the building
- Building structure design calculations. to support the forces caused by earthquakes in very tall buildings Unusually shaped tall buildings box structure design building or buildings built on soft ground and easy to collapse or collapse All this required advanced kinetic anti-seismic computational analysis.
- Such horizontal lateral forces occurring at any level above the base of the building. will cause the moment to rotate the building to flip around the pivot point at the base of the building, so to balance Therefore, there must be a counter-rotating resistance moment. which is derived from the force or weight of the building itself and the bonding force within the building such as the moment of resistance from the building’s weight and resistance due to internal bonding forces between building structures such as foundations, columns and load-bearing walls.
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- Moment of gravity arises from the weight of the building itself to resist the moment of turning the building from turning over. Generally, the building law stipulates that the moment of gravity is greater than the rotation moment of the building. for at least 50% safety
- The following is a brief introduction. Regarding the structural system of the building that must be designed to support the forces acting on the building and transfer such forces into the ground or foundation For readers who want to know more can find information and check from the book Able to design building structures
- The acceleration of the Earth’s crust.
- The period or the oscillation period of the structure. It will be less or more depending on the overall height of the building. including the nature, size and shape of the building on the side parallel to the direction of the force acting The oscillations of stronger structures are shorter and faster.

while the oscillation of the weaker structure will occur longer or longer and oscillate more slowly

Force acting on the structure

A force can cause a change in the shape or motion of an object. where the force is considered to be a quantity in the form of a vector. which will have both size and direction It will show the symbol as an arrow. which the vector will be in the direction of the arrowhead and will have a volume proportional to the length of the arrow shank For the action of a single force or a single vector, it can be considered that the force acts at any point along the line of that vector. Visit Here: f95zone

- The sum of vectors. caused by multiple forces that are in the same straight line They may be in the same direction or opposite each other. will result in algebraic addition and subtraction. and remains in the same straight line
- Vector output. It is caused by forces that converge or intersect at the same point of intersection of two vectors. with different directions gives the sum as a new vector. which gives direction through or out of the same point acting on an object as two vectors act on an object.
- We can find the sum of vectors from the law of parallel continuity. This can be done by drawing the sub-vectors into contiguous lines. with the direction parallel to the original and the same size as the original
- Likewise One vector can be distributed into two or more sub-vectors. as a vector acts on an object. for ease of structural analysis Popularly separated into sub vectors at right angles to each other. And this line element will look like a rectangle.
- The Polygon method is a graphical method for finding aggregate vectors. (the result of multiple sub-vectors) by tracing the sub-vectors one by one in succession. Let the end of the next vector connect to the arrowhead of the previous vector. Do this until the last sub-vector, so the combined vector has the same direction and magnitude as the vector drawn from the beginning of the first vector to the arrowhead of the last vector.
- Parallel forces are two or more forces that are in parallel with each other, so that they do not intersect or converge at any point. The sum of vectors makes an object spin in a circle. Also known as the moment
- Moment is the result of a force acting away from the pivot point perpendicular to the force to the pivot point. Whether the force has a direction relative to the pivot point is either clockwise or counterclockwise rotation.
- Parallel forces of equal magnitude and opposite direction. with perpendicular distance This produces a moment by the product of the two forces combined with the perpendicular from the force to the central pivot point. More Information Visit this site: f95zone

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